Rabu, 13 April 2016

How to live at Kyoto - Shigakuin International House ( Part 1)


Jejak Kembara di Bumi Sakura-  Shigakuin International house.

Ohayo gozaimasu



 Bagi setiap pelajar yang melanjutkan pelajaran di Kyoto Universiti pasti mempunyai pengalaman tinggal di Shigakuin International House. Pengalaman tinggal di Shigakuin pasti satu pengalaman yang pasti tidak dapat di lupai selamanya.


 Bangunan 5 tingkat ini mula di buka pada August 1982 yang mempunyai 131 unit bilik ,pejabat, lobi, library , Japanese room dan kemudahan laundry dan bilik memasak ( single room).  

Untuk mendapat tempat di sini agak susah kerana ramai yang memohon.  Bagi yang pertama kali datang ke Jepun,  Shigukuain International House merupakan tempat yang tepat untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan cara hidup di Jepun.




 Selain dari itu, untuk menyewa rumah di Jepun harganya amat mahal terutama yang sudah berkeluarga. Menginap di Shigakuin International House dapat menjimatkan kos sebelum mencari rumah yang lebih sesuai kerana tempoh menginap di sini hanya diberi maksima setahun.




Penulis dan isteri menyewa bilik type C ( married couple) untuk lebih privasi. Ini kerana hanya isteri saja yang terpaksa tinggal di sini bagi meneruskan pengajian di Kyoto University manakala penulis terpaksa pulang ke Malaysia semula. So terpaksalah berpisah seketika.





Di bawah ini sedikit maklumat berkaitan dengan Shigakuin International House.
(1) COMMON USE FACILITIES
·         Lobby (1st fl.), Library and Lounge (2nd fl.) 7 am – 10 pm
·         Shower rooms (1st and 2nd fl.: for use by residents in Unit Type G)
·         Cooking rooms (1st and 2nd fl.: for use by residents in Unit Type D and G) 7 am – 10 pm
·         Laundry rooms (1st and 2nd fl.) 7 am – 10 pm
·         Japanese-style room and meeting room (2nd fl.)
(10 am – 8 pm except Saturday morning) permission necessary in advance
(2) TOTAL UNITS: 131
a. For researchers: 56 units
·         Type A (4 rooms, 79 m²) for a large family    1 unit
·         Type B (3 rooms, 60 m²) for families             8 units
·         Type C (2 rooms, 40 m²) for married couples            24 units
·         Type D (1 room, 20 m²) for singles               23 units
b. For students: 75 units
·         Type E (3 rooms, 53 m²) for families                9 units
·         Type F (2 rooms, 35 m²) for married couples               21 units
·         Type G (1 room, 18 m²) for single men            36 units
·         Type G’ (1 room, 20 m²) for single women        9 units
(3) FURNISHINGS
All rooms are air-conditioned.  All units have a hot-water tank (except type G) and are furnished with internet access, IH cooking range, refrigerator, microwave-oven (except types D, G, G’), washing machine (except types D, G, G’), bath (except type G), toilet, bed(s), bedding set and furniture.
For residents of units not equipped with certain facilities, there are common laundry rooms, shower rooms and cooking rooms.
4. Rent
Rent which includes water, internet access and bedding must be paid according to the following rates.
Admission fee will be charged 10,800 at the beginning of the tenancy together with the rent for the first month.
(1) Researchers
Unit Type
Monthly Fees (yen)
Daily Fees (yen)
Family (A)
5 persons  ¥ 79,700
5 persons  ¥ 2,660
4 persons  ¥ 77,900
4 persons  ¥ 2,600
3 persons  ¥ 76,000
3 persons  ¥ 2,540
2 persons  ¥ 74,200
2 persons  ¥ 2,480
Family (B)
4 persons  ¥ 64,900
4 persons  ¥ 2,170
3 persons  ¥ 63,100
3 persons  ¥ 2,110
2 persons  ¥ 61,200
2 persons  ¥ 2,050
Married Couple (C)
¥ 43,000
¥ 1,440
Single (D)
¥ 21,900
¥ 730
Note: For researchers arriving or leaving mid-month, the rent for that month is calculated at the daily rate. Rent is subject to change.
(2) Students
Unit Type
Monthly Fees (yen)
Family (E)
4 persons  ¥ 40,500
3 persons  ¥ 38,700
2 persons  ¥ 36,800
Married Couple ()
¥ 29,900
Single (G)(G’)
¥ 18,200
Note: Students must pay the rent on a per-month basis even if they move in or vacate the unit mid-month. Rent is subject to change.


Suasana di kawasan Shugakuin ini amat tenang dan sunyi. Oleh kerana lokasinya berhampiran stesen keretapi, Eizan Line, di waktu malam kita akan mendengar bunyi keretapi dengan jelas.










Selain itu bagi pelajar yang tinggal di Shigakuin International House akan menjadi sasaran setiap kali masyarakat pelajar dan keluarga di Kyoto ingin mengadakan majlis perjumpaan , suai kenal mahupun jamuan hari raya kerana hanya mereka yang tinggal di sini boleh menyewa Japanese room yang agak besar yang di gunakan untuk tempat pertemuan.


Bagi pelajar Malaysia yang pernah belajar di bumi Kyoto pasti pernah ke sini berkumpul dan beramah mesra.


 Di Japanese Room ini terlalu banyak menyaksikan pertemuan dan perpisahan pelajar Malaysia setiap tahun. Kenangan berada disini pasti amat di rindui.






Bagi penulis, disinilah bermulanya perjalanan Kembara di Bumi Sakura. Next time kita akan bercerita lagi berkaitan pengalaman sepanjang berada di Kyoto.

Sayonara, mata-ne.


Khamis, 7 April 2016

Cracking in Concrete



Learning Basic Knowledge As Civil Engineer


Cracking in concrete

ohayo gozaimasu.  
  • As Civil Engineer, cracking in concrete is hard to determine either it can affected the strength of structural or the structural is safe to be use.  
  • Based on experience working as Civil Engineer, the crack issue sometime become complicated to resolve between contractor and consultant. 
  • So far in Malaysia there no guide line and standard procedure that shall be follow in order to resolve this cracking issue. 
  • Please be reminded that crack and honeycomb is not a same. If honeycomb even it seen as severe honeycomb, it still can be repaired by proposing using grout cement material. However, cracking in concrete is sometime more difficult to handle. Even it seen barely visual, it is hard to prove to designer that the integrity of structure is not affected.
  • Many cases, when this cracking in structure raised up to top management, normally main consultant will reject the structure with reason the cracking in concrete are not acceptable to be use because the strength and durability of structure is affected and questionable unless the contractor can prove otherwise.
  • If the structure such as sump, drainage or any structural as long it not involving the public and live load, it still can be acceptable by main consultant. Normally the cracking in concrete will be come to argument for the pre stressing structure such as Precast Beam, Precast Box Girder etc because of it is main structure and the cost is very expensive.
  • Concrete is basically a mixture of three components: aggregates, water and cement. The aggregate component is normally comprised of sand and gravel or crushed stone.
  • The cement component is normally comprised of cementing materials, (portland cement with or without supplementary cementing materials), water, and air.


How concrete cracks happened?
Contributing Factors

      Low-strength concrete: Concrete is designed for compressive strength, and improved or increased tensile strength is generally incidental to improved compressive strength.  Lower strength concrete will have lower tensile strength and be more likely to crack, given equal stress magnitudes. 

      Poorly consolidated concrete: Poor consolidation causes loss of cross sectional area, and provides opportunities for cracks to initiate. 

      Unanticipated stresses: Stresses of magnitudes, and especially directions that were not anticipated in the initial design of the structure may cause unanticipated cracks.  Examples of this kind of structural cracking include diagonal cracks at corners of slabs, or at re-entrant corners in building slabs or building facades. 

Type of Crack

      Plastic Shrinkage Cracking






      When water evaporates from the surface of freshly placed concrete faster than it is replaced by bleed water, the surface concrete shrinks.

      Due to the restraint provided by the concrete below the drying surface layer, tensile stresses develop in the weak, stiffening plastic concrete, resulting in shallow cracks of varying depth.

      These cracks are often fairly wide at the surface.

      It common happened during construction because of in consistence of delivery of concrete supply.

      This crack can easily to control by using gunny bag or keep concrete temperature low by spraying water on the surface.


Drying Shrinkage:



      Because almost all concrete is mixed with more water than is needed to hydrate the cement, much of the remaining water evaporates, causing the concrete to shrink.
      Restraint to shrinkage, provided by the subgrade, reinforcement, or another part of the structure, causes tensile stresses to develop in the hardened concrete.
      Restraint to drying shrinkage is the most common cause of concrete cracking. In many applications, drying shrinkage cracking is inevitable.
      It common happened at jointing between to structure. Therefore, contraction (control) joints are placed in concrete to predetermine the location of drying shrinkage cracks.


 D-cracking


      It is can be describe as post construction cracking because It is a form of freeze-thaw deterioration that has been observed in some pavements after three or more years of service.
      Due to the natural accumulation of water in the base and subbase of pavements, the aggregate may eventually become saturated.
      Then with freezing and thawing cycles, cracking of the concrete starts in the saturated aggregate at the bottom of the slab and progresses upward until it reaches the wearing surface.
      D-cracking usually starts near pavement joints.

Alkali-aggregate reaction:



     Alkali-aggregate reactivity is a type of concrete deterioration that occurs when the active mineral constituents of some aggregates react with the alkali hydroxides in the concrete.
 
Alkali-aggregate reactivity occurs in two forms—alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR). 

     Indications of the presence of alkali-aggregate reactivity may be a network of cracks, closed or spalling joints, or displacement of different portions of a structure.


Thermal cracks





     Temperature rise (especially significant in mass concrete) results from the heat of hydration of cementations materials.

      As the interior concrete increases in temperature and expands, the surface concrete may be cooling and contracting. 

     This causes tensile stresses that may result in thermal cracks at the surface if the temperature differential between the surface and center is too great. 

     The width and depth of cracks depends upon the temperature differential, physical properties of the concrete, and the reinforcing steel.


Loss of support 


     Beneath concrete structures, usually caused by settling or washout of soils and sub base materials, can cause a variety of problems in concrete structures, from cracking and performance problems to structural failure. 

      Loss of support can also occur during construction due to inadequate formwork support or premature removal of forms.


 Corrosion

     Corrosion of reinforcing steel and other embedded metals is one of the leading causes of deterioration of concrete.

      When steel corrodes, the resulting rust occupies a greater volume than steel. 

     The expansion creates tensile stresses in the concrete, which can eventually cause cracking and spalling.


Crazing 


     Crazing is a pattern of fine cracks that do not penetrate much below the surface and are usually a cosmetic problem only. 

     They are barely visible, except when the concrete is drying after the surface has been wet.


As Engineer, we shall understand about crack type so that we can provide method of rectification. except loss of support crack, there rest of of crack can be repair by using non shrink grout material. but some time, it hard to explain to consultant that some of crack not affected the strength and durability of structure. 

Next time i will sharing more about rectification for crack in concrete. 


sayonara, mata ne


Rabu, 17 Jun 2015

How to live at Japan - Hotel and space


JEJAK KEMBARA DI BUMI SAKURA



Ohayo gozaimasu

Konichiwa

Jepun memang dikenali sebagai negara yang amat padat dari segi penduduk per kawasan. Sebelum sampai di Jepun, didalam pemikiran penulis membayangkan penduduk Jepun yang terlalu ramai sehingga kekurangan tanah untuk membina rumah sehingga terpaksa menambak laut bagi menampung keperluan tersebut. 

Tetapi pengalaman tinggal di Kyoto mendapati pesepsi tersebut adalah salah sama sekali. Walaupun mengejar pembangunan tetapi warisan nenek moyang dan tradisi di Jepun amat di hargai dan jaga bagi kegunaan generasi akan datang. 





Namun setelah tinggal di Jepun , perasaan simpati tadi bertukar kepada negara sendiri kerana di Jepun kawasan hutan masih terperihara dan tidak sewenang- wenangnya boleh diterokai. 


Kawasan tanah tinggi adalah dilarang untuk pembangunan.  Manakala kawasan keluasaan pertanian seperti sawah padi masih kekal seperti dulu dan sebarang pembangunan mestilah diganti dengan kawasan lain.



Kerajaan Jepun akan memastikan jumlah beras setiasa cukup untuk rakyatnya dan disebabkan itu Jepun tidak memerlukan beras import untuk rakyatnya sebab rakyat Jepun mempunyai sifat ego dan hanya mengagungkan barangan yang dihasilkan oleh rakyatnya. Sifat ini amat baik untuk di contohi oleh rakyat Malaysia. 


So kalau pergi pasaraya memang tak jual beras import seperti beras siam atau basmathi. Kalau tekak tak boleh makan beras jepun so kenalah order online beras siam…



Oleh kerana kawasan rendah sahaja dibenarkan membina bangunan maka ia menyebabkan Jepun kekurangan tanah dan oleh sebab itu di Jepun ruang adalah sesuatu yang amat dihargai.  Setiap ruang atau petak kosong di Jepun akan digunakan sebaiknya. Oleh sebab itu jangan terkejut sekiranya di Malaysia sekiranya kita menginap di Hotel 5 bintang,  ruang bilik tidur di hotel sebesar  rumah  semi D.  

Tapi di Jepun, even tinggal di Hotel 5 bintang,  ruang bilik hotel sebesar bilik no 2 rumah Semi D di Malaysia. 


Sampai di Kyoto Station, penulis  mengambil keputusan untuk tinggal di Kyoto Tower Hotel berhampiran dengan Kyoto Station.  Sesuatu yang unik di Jepun adalah bayaran untuk tinggal di hotel berdasarkan orang bukannya bilik. So kalau kita datang berdua , untuk menyewa di hotel bilik yang sama tetapi bayarannya mengikut bilangan orang. So tak kiralah kalau nak sewa single room, Queen room, king room ker bayar ikut kepala. So bayaran di Kyoto Tower Hotel adalah 6,500 yen seorang so dengan isteri terbanglah 13,000 yen. Nilai yen vs ringgit pada tahun 2010 lebih kurang 1000 yen = RM42. So lebih kurang RM 550 ringgit




so bila masuk jer bilik hotel ……….punyalah sempit. Kalau ikut standard kat Malaysia ruang bilik hotel ni macam hotel  2 atau 3 bintang.. Tapi itulah hakikat di Jepun kerana ruang adalah mahal. 
 



Sifat mulia yang dimiliki oleh orang Jepun adalah generasi sekarang sanggup berkorban dan berfikir panjang bagi memastikan generasi akan datang masih mempunyai ruang untuk tinggal. Berbanding dengan sikap orang Malaysia yang hanya mementing pada masa sekarang kerana berpandangan generasi akan datang pandai- pandailah nak hidup. Apa yang penting rezeki depan mata kita sapu dulu…Oleh sebab itu di Jepun,  generasi sekarang lebih mementing pride supaya apa yang mereka lakukan tidak akan membebankan generasi akan datang. 






 Sebagai contoh semua kawasan adalah dilarang merokok kecuali di kawasan yang khas untuk merokok. Oleh sebab itu di Jepun kawasan persekitaran amat bersih dan sampah amat sukar di jumpai.



Walaupun mahal tapi dapatlah tiket free naik Kyoto Tower. First day sampai dah boleh tengok bandar Kyoto dari atas...








so kita sambung cerita pada next episode.  

jaa ne , sayonara......



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